Sunday, May 24, 2020

H.D. or Hilda Doolittle - Imagist Poet, Translator

Hilda Doolittle (September 10, 1886–September 27 [or 28], 1961), also known as H.D., was a poet, author, translator, and memoirist known for her early poetry, which helped bring in the modern style of poetry and for her translations from the Greek. Early Years Hilda Doolittle was the only surviving girl in her family, with three brothers and two older half-brothers. She was born in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. Hildas father, Charles Leander Doolittle, came from New England ancestry. At the time of Hildas birth, he was the directory of Sayre Observatory and a professor of mathematics and astronomy at Lehigh University. Her father was quite supportive of her education; he thought she could become a scientist or mathematician, but she did not take to math. She wanted to be an artist like her mother, but her father ruled out art school. Charles Leander was rather cool, detached, and uncommunicative. Hildas mother Helen was a warm personality, in contrast to Hildas father, though she favored her son, Gilbert, over the other children. Her ancestry was Moravian. Her father had been a biologist and directory of the Moravian Seminary. Helen taught painting and music to children. Hilda saw her mother as losing her own identity to support her husband. Hilda Doolittles earliest years were spent living in her mothers familys Moravian community. In about 1895, Charles Doolittle became a professor at the University of Pennsylvania and a director of the Flower Observatory. Hilda attended the Gordon School, then the Friends Preparatory School. Early Writing and Loves When Hilda Doolittle was 15, she met Ezra Pound, a 16-year-old freshman at the University of Pennsylvania where her father was teaching. The next year, Pound introduced her to William Carlos Williams, then a medical student. Hilda enrolled at Bryn Mawr, a womens university, in 1904. Marianne Moore was a classmate. By 1905, Hilda Doolittle was composing poems. She continued her friendships with Pound and Williams. Despite her fathers opposition, she became engaged to Ezra Pound and the couple had to meet secretly. During her sophomore year, Hilda left school, for health reasons and her poor results in math and English. She turned to self-study of Greek and Latin, and she began writing for Philadelphia and New York papers, often submitting stories for children. Not much is known of her time between 1906 and 1911. In 1908, Ezra Pound moved to Europe. Hilda was living in New York in 1910, writing her first free verse poems. Around 1910, Hilda met and became involved with Frances Josepha Gregg, who had had an affair with Pound. Hilda found herself torn between the two. In 1911, Hilda toured Europe with Frances Gregg and Frances mother. She met there with Pound, whom she discovered was unofficially engaged to Dorothy Shakespear, making it clear to Hilda that her engagement to Pound was over. Hilda chose to remain in Europe. Her parents tried to get her to return home, but when she made clear that she was staying, they provided her with financial support. Gregg returned to America when Hilda stayed, to Hildas disappointment. In London, Doolittle moved in the literary circle of Ezra Pound. This group included such luminaries as W. B. Yeats and May Sinclair. She met Richard Aldington there, an Englishman and poet, six years younger than she was. Hilda received a letter from Gregg in 1911: Gregg had married and wanted Hilda to join her honeymoon trip to Paris. Pound convinced Hilda not to go. Gregg and Doolittle continued to write to each other occasionally until 1939. Hilda went to Paris in December of 1911 with Aldington, then to Italy with her visiting parents. Pound met her several times during these travels. She was back in London in 1912. Imagist Poet - and Chaotic Private Life At one meeting, Pound declared Hilda Doolittle to be an Imagist, and wanted her to sign her poems H.D. Imagist. She took up his insistent suggestion. She was known professionally after that as H.D. In October of 1913, H.D. and Aldington married, her parents and Ezra Pound among the guests. In 1914, Pound and Shakespears engagement became official when her father finally agreed to the marriage, which took place that year. Pound and his new wife moved into a flat in the same building as H.D. and Aldington. H.D. contributed to the 1914 publication, Des Imagistes, the first anthology of Imagist poetry. In publishing her poems in Poetry, H.D. began to have an influence on others. Amy Lowell, for instance, reacted to H.D.s published poems by declaring herself an Imagist as well. A poem first published in 1914 is often considered the prototypical Imagist poem, with spare language evoking images: OreadWhirl up, seaWhirl your pointed pines,Splash your great pineson our rockshurl your green over uscover us with your pools of fir. In 1915, H.D. published her first book of poems, Sea Garden. She also had a miscarriage that year. She blamed it on hearing about the sinking of the Lusitania. Her doctors told her to refrain from sex for the duration of the war. Richard had an affair with H.D.s friend Brigit Patmore, and then a more serious affair with Dorothy (Arabella) Yorke. Aldington enlisted to fight in World War I in 1916, hoping by enlisting to avoid being drafted. While he was away, H.D. took his place as literary editor of the Egoist, the main imagist publication. H.D. was also working on translations, and in 1916 published her translation of Choruses from Iphegenia in Aulis,, which was published by Egoist Press. Her health poor, H.D. resigned as the Egoists editor in 1917, and T.S. Eliot succeeded her in that position. D.H. Lawrence had become a friend, and one of his friends, Cecil Gray, a music historian, became involved with H.D. Then D.H. Lawrence and his wife came to stay with H.D. H.D. and Lawrence apparently came very close to having an affair, but her affair with Gray led to Lawrence and his wife leaving. Psychic Death In 1918, H.D. was devastated by the news that her brother, Gilbert, had died in action in France. Their father had a stroke when he learned of his sons death. H.D. became pregnant, apparently by Gray, and Aldington promised to be there for her and the child. The next March, H.D. received word that her father had died. She later called this month her psychic death. H.D. became seriously ill with influenza, which progressed to pneumonia. For a time, it was thought that she was going to die. Her daughter was born. Aldington forbid her using his name for the child, and left her for Dorothy Yorke. H.D. named her daughter Frances Perdita Aldington, and the daughter was known by that sad name, Perdita. Bryher The next period of her H.D.s life was relatively more calm and productive. In July of 1918, H.D. met Winifred Ellerman, a wealthy woman who became her benefactor and her lover. Ellerman had renamed herself Bryher. They went to Greece in 1920, and then to America together in 1920 and 1921. Among their stays were New York and Hollywood. While in the U.S., Bryher married Robert McAlmon, a marriage of convenience which freed Bryher from parental control. H.D. published her second book of poems in 1921, called Hymen. The poems featured many female figures from mythology as narrators, including Hymen, Demeter,  and Circe. H.D.s mother joined Bryher and H.D. on a trip to Greece in 1922, including a visit to the island of Lesbos, known as the home of the poet Sappho. The next year they went on to Egypt, where they were present at the opening of King Tuts tomb. Later that year, H.D. and Bryher moved to Switzerland, into houses near each other. H.D. found more peace for her writing. She kept her apartment in London for many years, splitting her time between homes. The next year, H.D. published Heliodora, and in 1925,  Collected Poems. The latter marked both the recognition of her work, and a kind of ending of the main phase of her poetry career. Kenneth MacPherson Through Frances Gregg, H.D. met Kenneth Macpherson. H.D. and Macpherson had an affair beginning in 1926. Bryher divorced Robert McAlmon and then married Macpherson. Some speculate that the marriage was cover to prevent Aldington from protesting the use of his name for H.D.s daughter, Perdita. Macpherson adopted Perdita in 1928, the same year H.D. had an abortion while staying in Berlin. H.D. briefly reconciled with Aldington in 1929. The three founded a film group, the Pool Group. For that group, Macpherson directed three movies; H.D. starred in them: Wing Beat in 1927, Foothills in 1928, and Borderline in 1930 (with Paul Robeson). The three also traveled together. Macpherson drifted off eventually, more interested in affairs with men. More Writing From 1927 to 1931, in addition to taking up some acting, H.D. wrote for the avant-garde cinema journal Close Up, which she, Macpherson, and Bryher founded, with Bryher financing the project. H.D. published her first novel, Palimpsest, in 1926, featuring women expatriates with careers, searching for their identity and love. In 1927, she published a prose play Hippolytus Temporizes and in 1928, both a second novel, Hedylus set in ancient Greece, and Narthax, asking whether love and art are compatible for women. In 1929 she published more poems. Psychoanalysis Bryher met Sigmund Freud in 1937 and began analysis with his disciple Hanns Sachs in 1928. H.D. began analysis with Mary Chadwick, and in 1931 through 1933, with Sachs. She was referred by him to Sigmund Freud. H.D. came to see in this psychoanalytic work a way to link myths as universal understandings of union, to mystic visions shed experienced. In 1939, she began writing Tribute to Freud about her experiences with him. War and Shadows of War Bryher became involved with rescuing refugees from the Nazis between 1923 and 1928, helping more than 100, mostly Jews, escape. H.D. also took an anti-fascist stand. Over this, she broke with Pound, who was pro-fascist, even promoting investment in Mussolinis Italy. H.D. published The Hedgehog, a childrens story, in 1936, and the next year published a translation of Ion by Euripides. She finally divorced Aldington in 1938, the year she also received the Levinson Prize for Poetry. H.D. returned to Britain when war broke out. Bryher returned after Germany invaded France. They spent the war mostly in London. In the war years, H.D. produced three volumes of poetry: The Walls Do Not Fall in 1944, Tribute to the Angels in 1945, and Flowering of the Rod in 1946. These three, a war trilogy, were reprinted in 1973 as one volume. They were not nearly as popular as her earlier work. Was H.D. a Lesbian? H.D., Hilda Doolittle, has been claimed as a lesbian poet and novelist. She was likely more accurately called a bisexual. She wrote an essay called The Wise Sappho and a number of poems with Sapphic references—at a time when Sappho was identified with lesbianism. Freud named her the perfect bi- Later Life H.D. began to have occult experiences and write more mystical poetry. Her involvement in the occult caused a split with Bryher, and after H.D. had a breakdown in 1945 and retreated to Switzerland, they lived apart though they remained in regular communication. Perdita moved to the United States, where she married in 1949 and had four children. H.D. visited America twice, in 1956 and 1960, to visit her grandchildren. H.D. renewed contact with Pound, with whom she corresponded often. H.D. published Avon River in 1949. More awards came H.D.s way in the 1950s, as her role in American poetry was recognized. In 1960, she won the poetry award from the American Academy of Arts and Letters. In 1956, H.D. broke her hip, and recovered in Switzerland. She published a collection, Selected Poems, in 1957, and in 1960 a roman a clef about life around World War I—including the end of her marriage—as Bid Me to Live. She moved to a nursing home in 1960 after her last visit to America. Still productive, she published in 1961 Helen in Egypt from the perspective of Helen as protagonist and wrote 13 poems that were published in 1972 as Hermetic Definition. She had a stroke in June of 1961 and died, still in Switzerland, on September 27. The year 2000 saw the first publication of her work, Pilates Wife, with the wife of Pontius Pilate, whom H.D. named Veronica, as protagonist.

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

How Can Confessional Poetry Help Us Express Ideas And...

Previously acquired knowledge and skills applied in this lesson - Literary Elements: tone, theme, mood, author’s purpose, repetition - Poetry Analysis Elements: speaker, impression, context - Students must actively participate in classroom discussion and respond to teacher and peers in a respectful and educational manner. - Open-ended exit ticket response Goals, Objectives, and Standards 1. Academic goal(s): How can confessional poetry help us express ideas and beliefs we wish our teachers knew? Specific objectives (stated in observable and/or measurable terms): a. Students will use analyze and discuss a poem in an appropriate group discussion. b. Students will use literary elements to dissect and discuss a confessional poem. c. Students will use poetry to express their own beliefs on what they wish their teachers knew about them. Standards: CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.9-10.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time and place; how it sets a formal or informal tone). CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.9-10.10 By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 9-10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.9-10.1 Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Twilight Saga 2 New Moon Chapter 1 PARTY Free Essays

string(29) " over my anxious brown eyes\." I WAS NINETY-NINE POINT NINE PERCENT SURE I WAS dreaming. The reasons I was so certain were that, first, I was standing in a bright shaft of sunlightthe kind of blinding clear sun that never shone on my drizzly new hometown in Forks, Washingtonand second, I was looking at my Grandma Marie. Gran had been dead for six years now, so that was solid evidence toward the dream theory. We will write a custom essay sample on The Twilight Saga 2: New Moon Chapter 1 PARTY or any similar topic only for you Order Now Gran hadn’t changed much; her face looked just the same as I remembered it. The skin was soft and withered, bent into a thousand tiny creases that clung gently to the bone underneath. Like a dried apricot, but with a puff of thick white hair standing out in a cloud around it. Our mouthshers a wizened pickerspread into the same surprised half-smile at just the same time. Apparently, she hadn’t been expecting to see me, either. I was about to ask her a question; I had so manyWhat was she doing here in my cream? What had she been up to in the past six years? Was Pop okay, and had they found each other, wherever they werebut she opened her mouth when I did, so I stopped to let her go first. She paused, too, and then we Goth smiled at the little awkwardness. â€Å"Bella!† It wasn’t Gran who called my name, and we both turned to see the addition to our small reunion. I didn’t have to look to know who it was; this was a voice I would know anywhereknow, and respond to, whether I was awake or asleep or even dead, I’d bet. The voice I’d walk through fire foror, less dramatically, slosh every day through the cold and endless rain for. Edward. Even though I was always thrilled to see himconscious or otherwiseand even though I was almost positive that I was dreaming, I panicked as Edward walked toward us through the glaring sunlight. I panicked because Gran didn’t know that I was in love with a vampirenobody knew thatso how was I supposed to explain the fact that the brilliant sunbeams were shattering off his skin into a thousand rainbow shards like he was made of crystal or diamond? Well, Gran, yon might have noticed that my boyfriend glitters. It’s just something he does in the sun. Don’t worry about it What was he doing? The whole reason he lived in Forks, the rainiest place in the world, was so that he could be outside in the daytime without exposing his family’s secret. Yet here he was, strolling gracefully toward mewith the most beautiful smile on his angel’s faceas if I were the only one here. In that second, I wished that I was not the one exception to his mysterious talent; I usually felt grateful that I was the only person whose thoughts he couldn’t hear just as clearly as if they were spoken aloud. But now I wished he could hear me, too, so that he could hear the warning I was screaming in my head. I shot a panicked glance back at Gran, and saw that it was too late. She was just turning to stare back at me, her eyes as alarmed as mine. Edwardstill smiling so beautifully that my heart felt like it was going to swell up and burst through my chestput his arm around my shoulder and turned to face my grandmother. Gran’s expression surprised me. Instead of looking horrified, she was staring at me sheepishly, as if waiting for a scolding. And she was standing in such a strange positionone arm held awkwardly away from her body, stretched out and then curled around the air. Like she had her arm around someone I couldn’t see, someone invisible Only then, as I looked at the bigger picture, did I notice the huge gilt frame that enclosed my grandmother’s form. Uncomprehending, I raised the hand that wasn’t wrapped around Edward’s waist and reached out to touch her. She mimicked the movement exactly, mirrored it. But where our fingers should have met, there was nothing but cold glass With a dizzying jolt, my dream abruptly became a nightmare. There was no Gran. That was me. Me in a mirror. Meancient, creased, and withered. Edward stood beside me, casting no reflection, excruciatingly lovely and forever seventeen. He pressed his icy, perfect lips against my wasted cheek. â€Å"Happy birthday,† he whispered. I woke with a startmy eyelids popping open wideand gasped. Dull gray light, the familiar light of an overcast morning, took the place of the blinding sun in my dream. Just a dream, I told myself. It was only a dream. I took a deep breath, and then jumped again when my alarm went off. The little calendar in the corner of the clock’s display informed me that today was September thirteenth. Only a dream, but prophetic enough in one way, at least. Today was my birthday. I was officially eighteen years old. I’d been dreading this day for months. All through the perfect summerthe happiest summer I had ever had, the happiest summer anyone anywhere had ever had, and the rainiest summer in the history of the Olympic Peninsulathis bleak date had lurked in ambush, waiting to spring. And now that it had hit, it was even worse than I’d feared it would be. I could feel itI was older. Every day I got older, but this was different, worse, quantifiable. I was eighteen. And Edward never would be. When I went to brush my teeth, I was almost surprised that the face in the mirror hadn’t changed. I stared at myself, looking for some sign of impending wrinkles in my ivory skin. The only creases were the ones on my forehead, though, and I knew that if I could manage to relax, they would disappear. I couldn’t. My eyebrows stayed lodged in a worried line over my anxious brown eyes. You read "The Twilight Saga 2: New Moon Chapter 1 PARTY" in category "Essay examples" It was just a dream, I reminded myself again. Just a dream but also my worst nightmare. I skipped breakfast, in a hurry to get out of the house as quickly as possible. I wasn’t entirely able to avoid my dad, and so I had to spend a few minutes acting cheerful. I honestly tried to be excited about the gifts I’d asked him not to get me, but every time I had to smile, it felt like I might start crying. I struggled to get a grip on myself as I drove to school. The vision of GranI would not think of it as mewas hard to get out of my head. I couldn’t feel anything but despair until I pulled into the familiar parking lot behind Forks High School and spotted Edward leaning motionlessly against his polished silver Volvo, like a marble tribute to some forgotten pagan god of beauty. The dream had not done him justice. And he was waiting there for me, just the same as every other day. Despair momentarily vanished; wonder took its place. Even after half a year with him, I still couldn’t believe that I deserved this degree of good fortune. His sister Alice was standing by his side, waiting for me, too. Of course Edward and Alice weren’t really related (in Forks the story was that all the Cullen siblings were adopted by Dr. Carlisle Culler and his wife, Esme, both plainly too young to have teenage children), but their skin was precisely the same pale shade, their eyes had the same strange golden tint, with the same deep, bruise-like shadows beneath them. Her face, like his, was also startlingly beautiful. To someone in the knowsomeone like methese similarities marked them for what they were. The sight of Alice waiting thereher tawny eyes brilliant with excitement, and a small silver-wrapped square in her handsmade me frown. I’d told Alice I didn’t want anything, anything, not gifts or even attention, for my birthday. Obviously, my wishes were being ignored. I slammed the door of my ’53 Chevy trucka shower of rust specks fluttered down to the wet blacktopand walked slowly toward where they waited. Alice skipped forward to meet me, her pixie face glowing under her spiky black hair. â€Å"Happy birthday, Bella!† â€Å"Shh!† I hissed, glancing around the lot to make sure no one had heard her. The last thing I wanted was some kind of celebration of the black event. She ignored me. â€Å"Do you want to open your present now or later?† she asked eagerly as we made our way to where Edward still waited. â€Å"No presents,† I protested in a mumble. She finally seemed to process my mood. â€Å"Okay later, then. Did you like the scrapbook your mom sent you? And the camera from Charlie?† I sighed. Of course she would know what my birthday presents were. Edward wasn’t the only member of his family with unusual skills. Alice would have â€Å"seen† what my parents were planning as soon as they’d decided that themselves. â€Å"Yeah. They’re great.† â€Å"I think it’s a nice idea. You’re only a senior once. Might as well document the experience.† â€Å"How many times have you been a senior?† â€Å"That’s different.† We reached Edward then, and he held out his hand for mine. I took it eagerly, forgetting, for a moment, my glum mood. His skin was, as always, smooth, hard, and very cold. He gave my fingers a gentle squeeze. I looked into his liquid topa2 eyes, and my heart gave a not-quite-so-gentle squeeze of its own. Hearing the stutter in my heartbeats, he smiled again. He lifted his free hand and traced one cool fingertip around the outside of my lips as he spoke. â€Å"So, as discussed, I am not allowed to wish you a happy birthday, is that correct?† â€Å"Yes. That is correct.† I could never quite mimic the flow of his perfect, formal articulation. It was something that could only be picked up in an earlier century. â€Å"Just checking.† He ran his hand through his tousled bronze hair. â€Å"You might have changed your mind. Most people seem to enjoy things like birthdays and gifts.† Alice laughed, and the sound was all silver, a wind chime. â€Å"Of course you’ll enjoy it. Everyone is supposed to be nice to you today and give you your way, Bella. What’s the worst that could happen?† She meant it as a rhetorical question. â€Å"Getting older,† I answered anyway, and my voice was not as steady as I wanted it to be. Beside me, Edward’s smile tightened into a hard line. â€Å"Eighteen isn’t very old,† Alice said. â€Å"Don’t women usually wait till they’re twenty-nine to get upset over birthdays?† â€Å"It’s older than Edward,† I mumbled. He sighed. â€Å"Technically,† she said, keeping her tone light. â€Å"Just by one little year, though.† And I supposed if I could be sure of the future I wanted, sure that I would get to spend forever with Edward, and Alice and the rest of the Cullens (preferably not as a wrinkled little old lady) then a year or two one direction or the other wouldn’t matter to me so much. But Edward was dead set against any future that changed me. Any future that made me like himthat made me immortal, too. An impasse, he called it. I couldn’t really see Edward’s point, to be honest. What was so great about mortality? Being a vampire didn’t look like such a terrible thingnot the way the Cullens did it, anyway. â€Å"What time will you be at the house?† Alice continued, changing the subject. From her expression, she was up to exactly the kind of thing I’d been hoping to avoid. â€Å"I didn’t know I had plans to be there.† â€Å"Oh, be fair, Bella!† she complained. â€Å"You aren’t going to ruin all our fun like that, are you?† â€Å"I thought my birthday was about what I want.† â€Å"I’ll get her from Charlie’s right after school,† Edward told her, ignoring me altogether. â€Å"I have to work,† I protested. â€Å"You don’t, actually,† Alice told me smugly. â€Å"I already spoke to Mrs. Newton about it. She’s trading your shifts. She said to tell you ‘Happy Birthday.'† â€Å"II still can’t come over,† I stammered, scrambling for an excuse. â€Å"I, well, I haven’t watched Romeo and Juliet yet for English.† Alice snorted. â€Å"You have Romeo and Juliet memorized.† â€Å"But Mr. Berty said we needed to see it performed to fully appreciate itthat’s how Shakespeare intended it to be presented.† Edward rolled his eyes. â€Å"You’ve already seen the movie,† Alice accused. â€Å"But not the nineteen-sixties version. Mr. Berty said it was the best.† Finally, Alice lost the smug smile and glared at me. â€Å"This can be easy, or this can be hard, Bella, but one way or the other† Edward interrupted her threat. â€Å"Relax, Alice. If Bella wants to watch a movie, then she can. It’s her birthday.† â€Å"So there,† I added. â€Å"I’ll bring her over around seven,† he continued. â€Å"That will give you more time to set up.† Alice’s laughter chimed again. â€Å"Sounds good. See you tonight, Bella! It’ll be fun, you’ll see.† She grinnedthe wide smile exposed all her perfect, glistening teeththen pecked me on the cheek and danced off toward her first class before I could respond. â€Å"Edward, please† I started to beg, but he pressed one cool finger to my lips. â€Å"Let’s discuss it later. We’re going to be late for class.† No one bothered to stare at us as we took our usual seats in the back of the classroom (we had almost every class together nowit was amazing the favors Edward could get the female administrators to do for him). Edward and I had been together too long now to be an object of gossip anymore. Even Mike Newton didn’t bother to give me the glum stare that used to make me feel a little guilty. He smiled now instead, and I was glad he seemed to have accepted that we could only be friends. Mike had changed over the summerhis face had lost some of the roundness, making his cheekbones more prominent, and he was wearing his pale blond hair a new way; instead of bristly, it was longer and gelled into a carefully casual disarray. It was easy to see where his inspiration came frombut Edward’s look wasn’t something that could be achieved through imitation. As the day progressed, I considered ways to get out of whatever was going down at the Cullen house tonight. It would be bad enough to have to celebrate when I was in the mood to mourn. But, worse than that, this was sure to involve attention and gifts. Attention is never a good thing, as any other accident-prone klutz would agree. No one wants a spotlight when they’re likely to fall on their face. And I’d very pointedly askedwell, ordered reallythat no one give me any presents this year. It looked like Charlie and Renee weren’t the only ones who had decided to overlook that. I’d never had much money, and that had never bothered me. Renee had raised me on a kindergarten teacher’s salary. Charlie wasn’t getting rich at his job, eitherhe was the police chief here in the tiny town of Forks. My only personal income came from the three days a week I worked at the local sporting goods store. In a town this small, I was lucky to have a job. Every penny I made went into my microscopic college fund. (College was Plan B. I was still hoping for Plan A, but Edward was just so stubborn about leaving me human) Edward had a lot of moneyI didn’t even want to think about how much. Money meant next to nothing to Edward or the rest of the Cullens. It was just something that accumulated when you had unlimited time on your hands and a sister who had an uncanny ability to predict trends in the stock market. Edward didn’t seem to understand why I objected to him spending money on mewhy it made me uncomfortable if he took me to an expensive restaurant in Seattle, why he wasn’t allowed to buy me a car that could reach speeds over fifty-five miles an hour, or why I wouldn’t let him pay my college tuition (he was ridiculously enthusiastic about Plan B). Edward thought I was being unnecessarily difficult. But how could I let him give me things when I had nothing to reciprocate with? He, for some unfathomable reason, wanted to be with me. Anything he gave me on top of that just threw us more out of balance. As the day went on, neither Edward nor Alice brought my birthday up again, and I began to relax a little. We sat at our usual table for lunch. A strange kind of truce existed at that table. The three of usEdward, Alice, and Isat on the extreme southern end of the table. Now that the â€Å"older† and somewhat scarier (in Emmett’s case, certainly) Cullen siblings had graduated, Alice and Edward did not seem quite so intimidating, and we did not sit here alone. My other friends, Mike and Jessica (who were in the awkward post-breakup friendship phase), Angela and Ben (whose relationship had survived the summer), Eric, Conner, Tyler, and Lauren (though that last one didn’t really count in the friend category) all sat at the same table, on the other side of an invisible line. That line dissolved on sunny days when Edward and Alice always skipped school, and then the conversation would swell out effortlessly to include me. Edward and Alice didn’t find this minor ostracism odd or hurtful the way I would have. They barely noticed it. People always felt strangely ill at ease with the Cullens, almost afraid for some reason they couldn’t explain to themselves. I was a rare exception to that rule. Sometimes it bothered Edward how very comfortable I was with being close to him. He thought he was hazardous to my healthan opinion I rejected vehemently whenever he voiced it. The afternoon passed quickly. School ended, and Edward walked me to my truck as he usually did. But this time, he held the passenger door open for me. Alice must have been taking his car home so that he could keep me from making a run for it. I folded my arms and made no move to get out of the rain. â€Å"It’s my birthday, don’t I get to drive?† â€Å"I’m pretending it’s not your birthday, just as you wished.† â€Å"If it’s not my birthday, then I don’t have to go to your house tonight† â€Å"All right.† He shut the passenger door and walked past me to open the driver’s side. â€Å"Happy birthday.† â€Å"Shh,† I shushed him halfheartedly. I climbed in the opened door, wishing he’d taken the other offer. Edward played with the radio while I drove, shaking his head in disapproval. â€Å"Your radio has horrible reception.† I frowned. I didn’t like it when he picked on my truck. The truck was greatit had personality. â€Å"You want a nice stereo? Drive your own car.† I was so nervous about Alice’s plans, on top of my already gloomy mood, that the words came out sharper than I’d meant them. I was hardly ever bad-tempered with Edward, and my tone made him press his lips together to keep from smiling. When I parked in front of Charlie’s house, he reached over to take my face in his hands. He handled me very carefully, pressing just the tips of his fingers softly against my temples, my cheekbones, my jawline. Like I was especially breakable. Which was exactly the casecompared with him, at least. â€Å"You should be in a good mood, today of all days,† he whispered. His sweet breath fanned across my face. â€Å"And if I don’t want to be in a good mood?† I asked, my breathing uneven. His golden eyes smoldered. â€Å"Too bad.† My head was already spinning by the time he leaned closer and pressed his icy lips against mine. As he intended, no doubt, I forgot all about my worries, and concentrated on remembering how to inhale and exhale. His mouth lingered on mine, cold and smooth and gentle, until I wrapped my arms around his neck and threw myself into the kiss with a little too much enthusiasm. I could feel his lips curve upward as he let go of my face and reached back to unlock my grip on him. Edward had drawn many careful lines for our physical relationship, with the intent being to keep me alive. Though I respected the need for maintaining a safe distance between my skin and his razor-sharp, venom-coated teeth, I tended to forget about trivial things like that when he was kissing me. â€Å"Be good, please,† he breathed against my cheek. He pressed his lips gently to mine one more time and then pulled away, folding my arms across my stomach. My pulse was thudding in my ears. I put one hand over my heart. It drummed hyperactively under my palm. â€Å"Do you think I’ll ever get better at this?† I wondered, mostly to myself. â€Å"That my heart might someday stop trying to jump out of my chest whenever you touch me?† â€Å"I really hope not,† he said, a bit smug. I rolled my eyes. â€Å"Let’s go watch the Capulets and Montagues hack each other up, all right?† â€Å"Your wish, my command.† Edward sprawled across the couch while I started the movie, fast-forwarding through the opening credits. When I perched on the edge of the sofa in front of him, he wrapped his arms around my waist and pulled me against his chest. It wasn’t exactly as comfortable as a sofa cushion would be, what with his chest being hard and coldand perfectas an ice sculpture, but it was definitely preferable. He pulled the old afghan off the back of the couch and draped it over me so I wouldn’t freeze beside his body. â€Å"You know, I’ve never had much patience with Romeo,† he commented as the movie started. â€Å"What’s wrong with Romeo?† I asked, a little offended. Romeo was one of my favorite fictional characters. Until I’d met Edward, I’d sort of had a thing for him. â€Å"Well, first of all, he’s in love with this Rosalinedon’t you think it makes him seem a little fickle? And then, a few minutes after their wedding, he kills Juliet’s cousin. That’s not very brilliant. Mistake after mistake. Could he have destroyed his own happiness any more thoroughly?† I sighed. â€Å"Do you want me to watch this alone?† â€Å"No, I’ll mostly be watching you, anyway.† His fingers traced patterns across the skin of my arm, raising goose bumps. â€Å"Will you cry?† â€Å"Probably,† I admitted, â€Å"if I’m paying attention.† â€Å"I won’t distract you then.† But I felt his lips on my hair, and it was very distracting. The movie eventually captured my interest, thanks in large part to Edward whispering Romeo’s lines in my earhis irresistible, velvet voice made the actor’s voice sound weak and coarse by comparison. And I did cry, to his amusement, when Juliet woke and found her new husband dead. â€Å"I’ll admit, I do sort of envy him here,† Edward said, drying the tears with a lock of my hair. â€Å"She’s very pretty.† He made a disgusted sound. â€Å"I don’t envy him the girljust the ease of the suicide,† he clarified in a teasing tone. â€Å"You humans have it so easy! All you have to do is throw down one tiny vial of plant extracts† â€Å"What?† I gasped. â€Å"It’s something I had to think about once, and I knew from Carlisle’s experience that it wouldn’t be simple. I’m not even sure how many ways Carlisle tried to kill himself in the beginning after he realized what he’d become† His voice, which had grown serious, turned light again. â€Å"And he’s clearly still in excellent health.† I twisted around so that I could read his face. â€Å"What are you talking about?† I demanded. â€Å"What do you mean, this something you had to think about once?† â€Å"Last spring, when you were nearly killed† He paused to take a deep breath, snuggling to return to his teasing tone. â€Å"Of course I was trying to focus on finding you alive, but part of my mind was making contingency plans. Like I said, it’s not as easy for me as it is for a human.† For one second, the memory of my last trip to Phoenix washed through my head and made me feel dizzy. I could see it all so clearlythe blinding sun, the heat waves coming off the concrete as I ran with desperate haste to find the sadistic vampire who wanted to torture me to death. James, waiting in the mirrored room with my mother as his hostageor so I’d thought. I hadn’t known it was all a ruse. Just as James hadn’t known that Edward was racing to save me; Edward made it in time, but it had been a close one. Unthinkingly, my fingers traced the crescent-shaped scar on my hand that was always just a few degrees cooler than the rest of my skin. I shook my headas if I could shake away the bad memoriesand tried to grasp what Edward meant. My stomach plunged uncomfortably. â€Å"Contingency plans?† I repeated. â€Å"Well, I wasn’t going to live without you.† He rolled his eyes as if that fact were childishly obvious. â€Å"But I wasn’t sure how to do itI knew Emmett and Jasper would never help so I was thinking maybe I would go to Italy and do something to provoke the Volturi.† I didn’t want to believe he was serious, but his golden eyes were brooding, focused on something far away in the distance as he contemplated ways to end his own life. Abruptly, I was furious. â€Å"What is a Volturi?† I demanded. â€Å"The Volturi are a family,† he explained, his eyes still remote. â€Å"A very old, very powerful family of our kind. They are the closest thing our world has to a royal family, I suppose. Carlisle lived with them briefly in his early years, in Italy, before he settled in Americado you remember the story?† â€Å"Of course I remember.† I would never forget the first time I’d gone to his home, the huge white mansion buried deep in the forest beside the river, or the room where CarlisleEdward’s father in so many real wayskept a wall of paintings that illustrated his personal history. The most vivid, most wildly colorful canvas there, the largest, was from Carlisle’s time in Italy. Of course I remembered the calm quartet of men, each with the exquisite face of a seraph, painted into the highest balcony overlooking the swirling mayhem of color. Though the painting was centuries old, Carlislethe blond angelremained unchanged. And I remembered the three others, Carlisle’s early acquaintances. Edward had never used the name Volturi for the beautiful trio, two black-haired, one snow white. He’d called them Aro, Caius, and Marcus, nighttime patrons of the arts â€Å"Anyway, you don’t irritate the Volturi,† Edward went on, interrupting ray reverie. â€Å"Not unless you want to dieor whatever it is we do.† His voice was so calm, it made him sound almost bored by the prospect. My anger turned to horror. I took his marble face between my hands and held it very tightly. â€Å"You must never, never, never think of anything like that again!† I said. â€Å"No matter what might ever happen to me, you are not allowed to hurt yourself!† â€Å"I’ll never put you in danger again, so it’s a moot point.† â€Å"Put me in danger! I thought we’d established that all the bad luck is my fault?† I was getting angrier. â€Å"How dare you even think like that?† The idea of Edward ceasing to exist, even if I were dead, was impossiblypainful. â€Å"What would you do, if the situation were reversed?† he asked. â€Å"That’s not the same thing.† He didn’t seem to understand the difference. He chuckled. â€Å"What if something did happen to you?† I blanched at the thought. â€Å"Would you want me to go off myself?† A trace of pain touched his perfect features. â€Å"I guess I see your point a little,† he admitted. â€Å"But what would I do without you?† â€Å"Whatever you were doing before I came along and complicated your existence.† He sighed. â€Å"You make that sound so easy.† â€Å"It should be. I’m not really that interesting.† He was about to argue, but then he let it go. â€Å"Moot point,† he reminded me. Abruptly, he pulled himself up into a more formal posture, shifting me to the side so that we were no longer touching. â€Å"Charlie?† I guessed. Edward smiled. After a moment, I heard the sound of the police cruiser pulling into the driveway. I reached out and took his hand firmly. My dad could deal with that much. Charlie came in with a pizza box in his hands. â€Å"Hey, kids.† He grinned at me. â€Å"I thought you’d like a break from cooking and washing dishes for your birthday. Hungry?† â€Å"Sure. Thanks, Dad.† Charlie didn’t comment on Edward’s apparent lack of appetite. He was used to Edward passing on dinner. â€Å"Do you mind if I borrow Bella for the evening?† Edward asked when Charlie and I were done. I looked at Charlie hopefully. Maybe he had some concept of birthdays as stay-at-home, family affairsthis was my first birthday with him, the first birthday since my mom, Renee, had remarried and gone to live in Florida, so I didn’t know what he would expect. â€Å"That’s finethe Mariners are playing the Sox tonight,† Charlie explained, and my hope disappeared. â€Å"So I won’t be any kind of company Here.† He scooped up the camera he’d gotten me on Renee’s suggestion (because I would need pictures to fill up my scrap-book), and threw it to me. He ought to know better than thatI’d always been coordinationally challenged. The camera glanced off the tip of my finger, and tumbled toward the floor. Edward snagged it before it could crash onto the linoleum. â€Å"Nice save,† Charlie noted. â€Å"If they’re doing something fun at the Cullens’ tonight, Bella, you should take some pictures. You know how your mother getsshe’ll be wanting to see the pictures faster than you can take them.† â€Å"Good idea, Charlie,† Edward said, handing me the camera. I turned the camera on Edward, and snapped the first picture. â€Å"It works.† â€Å"That’s good. Hey, say hi to Alice for me. She hasn’t been over in a while.† Charlie’s mouth pulled down at one corner. â€Å"It’s been three days, Dad,† I reminded him. Charlie was crazy about Alice. He’d become attached last spring when she’d helped me through my awkward convalescence; Charlie would be fore’ter grateful to her for saving him from the horror of an almost-adult daughter who needed help showering. â€Å"I’ll tell her.† â€Å"Okay. You kids have fun tonight.† It was clearly a dismissal. Charlie was already edging toward the living room and the TV. Edward smiled, triumphant, and took my hand to pull me from the kitchen. When we got to the truck, he opened the passenger door for me again, and this time I didn’t argue. I still had a hard time finding the obscure turnoff to his house in the dark. Edward drove north through Forks, visibly chafing at the speed limit enforced by my prehistoric Chevy. The engine groaned even louder than usual as he pushed it over fifty. â€Å"Take it easy,† I warned him. â€Å"You know what you would love? A nice little Audi coupe. Very quiet, lots of power† â€Å"There’s nothing wrong with my truck. And speaking of expensive nonessentials, if you know what’s good for you, you didn’t spend any money on birthday presents.† â€Å"Not a dime,† he said virtuously. â€Å"Good.† â€Å"Can you do me a favor?† â€Å"That depends on what it is.† He sighed, his lovely face serious. â€Å"Bella, the last real birthday any of us had was Emmett in 1935. Cut us a little slack, and don’t be too difficult tonight. They’re all very excited.† It always startled me a little when he brought up things like that. â€Å"Fine, I’ll behave.† â€Å"I probably should warn you† â€Å"Please do.† â€Å"When I say they’re all excited I do mean all of them.† â€Å"Everyone?† I choked. â€Å"I thought Emmett and Rosalie were in Africa.† The rest of Forks was under the impression that the older Cullens had gone off to college this year, to Dartmouth, but I knew better. â€Å"Emmett wanted to be here.† â€Å"But Rosalie?† â€Å"I know, Bella. Don’t worry, she’ll be on her best behavior.† I didn’t answer. Like I could just not worry, that easy. Unlike Alice, Edward’s other â€Å"adopted† sister, the golden blond and exquisite Rosalie, didn’t like me much. Actually, the feeling was a little bit stronger than just dislike. As far as Rosalie was concerned, I was an unwelcome intruder into her family’s secret life. I felt horribly guilty about the present situation, guessing that Rosalie and Emmett’s prolonged absence was my fault, even as I furtively enjoyed not having to see her Emmett, Edward’s playful bear of a brother, I did miss. He was in many ways just like the big brother I’d always wanted only much, much more terrifying. Edward decided to change the subject. â€Å"So, if you won’t let me get you the Audi, isn’t there anything that you’d like for your birthday?† The words came out in a whisper. â€Å"You know what I want.† A deep frown carved creases into his marble forehead. He obviously wished he’d stuck to the subject of Rosalie. It felt like we’d had this argument a lot today. â€Å"Not tonight, Bella. Please.† â€Å"Well, maybe Alice will give me what I want.† Edward growleda deep, menacing sound. â€Å"This isn’t going to be your last birthday, Bella,† he vowed. â€Å"That’s not fair!† I thought I heard his teeth clench together. We were pulling up to the house now. Bright light shined from every window on the first two floors. A long line of glowing Japanese lanterns hung from the porch eaves, reflecting a soft radiance on the huge cedars that surrounded the house. Big bowls of flowerspink roseslined the wide stairs up to the front doors. I moaned. Edward took a few deep breaths to calm himself. â€Å"This is a party,† he reminded me. â€Å"Try to be a good sport.† â€Å"Sure,† I muttered. He came around to get my door, and offered me his hand. â€Å"I have a question.† He waited warily. â€Å"If I develop this film,† I said, toying with the camera in my hands, â€Å"will you show up in the picture?† Edward started laughing. He helped me out of the car, pulled me up the stairs, and was still laughing as he opened the door for me. They were all waiting in the huge white living room; when I walked through the door, they greeted me with a loud chorus of â€Å"Happy birthday, Bella!† while I blushed and looked down. Alice, I assumed, had covered every flat surface with pink candles and dozens of crystal bowls filled with hundreds of roses. There was a table with a white cloth draped over it next to Edward’s grand piano, holding a pink birthday cake, more roses, a stack of glass plates, and a small pile of silver-wrapped presents. It was a hundred times worse than I’d imagined. Edward, sensing my distress, wrapped an encouraging arm around my waist and kissed the top of my head. Edward’s parents, Carlisle and Esmeimpossibly youthful and lovely as everwere the closest to the door. Esme hugged me carefully, her soft, caramel-colored hair brushing against my cheek as she kissed my forehead, and then Carlisle put his arm around my shoulders. â€Å"Sorry about this, Bella,† he stage-whispered. â€Å"We couldn’t rein Alice in.† Rosalie and Emmett stood behind them. Rosalie didn’t smile, but at least she didn’t glare. Emmett’s face was stretched into a huge grin. It had been months since I’d seen them; I’d forgotten how gloriously beautiful Rosalie wasit almost hurt to look at her. And had Emmett always been so big? â€Å"You haven’t changed at all,† Emmett said with mock disappointment. â€Å"I expected a perceptible difference, but here you are, red-faced just like always.† â€Å"Thanks a lot, Emmett,† I said, blushing deeper. He laughed, â€Å"I have to step out for a second†he paused to wink conspicuously at Alice†Don’t do anything funny while I’m gone.† â€Å"I’lltry.† Alice let go of Jasper’s hand and skipped forward, all her teeth sparkling in the bright light. Jasper smiled, too, but kept his distance. He leaned, long and blond, against the post at the foot of the stairs. During the days we’d had to spend cooped up together in Phoenix, I’d thought he’d gotten over his aversion to me. But he’d gone back to exactly how he’d acted beforeavoiding me as much as possiblethe moment he was free from that temporary obligation to protect me. I knew it wasn’t personal, just a precaution, and I tried not to be overly sensitive about it. Jasper had more trouble sticking to the Cullens’ diet than the rest of them; the scent of human blood was much harder for him to resist than the othershe hadn’t been trying as long. â€Å"Time to open presents,† Alice declared. She put her cool hand under my elbow and towed me to the table with the cake and the shiny packages. I put on my best martyr face. â€Å"Alice, I know I told you I didn’t want anything† â€Å"But I didn’t listen,† she interrupted, smug. â€Å"Open it.† She took the camera from my hands and replaced it with a big, square silver box. The box was so light that it felt empty. The tag on top said that it was from Emmett, Rosalie, and Jasper. Selfconsciously, I tore the paper off and then stared at the box it concealed. It was something electrical, with lots of numbers in the name. I opened the box, hoping for further illumination. But the box was empty. â€Å"Um thanks.† Rosalie actually cracked a smile. Jasper laughed. â€Å"It’s a stereo for your truck,† he explained. â€Å"Emmett’s installing it right now so that you can’t return it.† Alice was always one step ahead of me. â€Å"Thanks, Jasper, Rosalie,† I told them, grinning as I remembered Edward’s complaints about my radio this afternoonall a setup, apparently. â€Å"Thanks, Emmett!† I called more loudly. I heard his booming laugh from my truck, and I couldn’t help laughing, too. â€Å"Open mine and Edward’s next,† Alice said, so excited her voice was a high-pitched trill. She held a small, flat square in her hand. I turned to give Edward a basilisk glare. â€Å"You promised.† Before he could answer, Emmett bounded through the door. â€Å"Just in time!† he crowed. He pushed in behind Jasper, who had also drifted closer than usual to get a good look. â€Å"I didn’t spend a dime,† Edward assured me. He brushed a strand of hair from my face, leaving my skin tingling from his touch. I inhaled deeply and turned to Alice. â€Å"Give it to me,† I sighed. Emmett chuckled with delight. I took the little package, rolling my eyes at Edward while I stuck my finger under the edge of the paper and jerked it under the tape. â€Å"Shoot,† I muttered when the paper sliced my finger; I pulled it out to examine the damage. A single drop of blood oozed from the tiny cut. It all happened very quickly then. â€Å"No!† Edward roared. He threw himself at me, flinging me back across the table. It fell, as I did, scattering the cake and the presents, the flowers and the plates. I landed in the mess of shattered crystal. Jasper slammed into Edward, and the sound was like the crash of boulders in a rock slide. There was another noise, a grisly snarling that seemed to be coming from deep in Jasper’s chest. Jasper tried to shove past Edward, snapping his teeth just inches from Edward’s face. Emmett grabbed Jasper from behind in the next second, locking him into his massive steel grip, but Jasper struggled on, his wild, empty eyes focused only on me. Beyond the shock, there was also pain. I’d tumbled down to the floor by the piano, with my arms thrown out instinctively to catch my fall, into the jagged shards of glass. Only now did I feel the searing, stinging pain that ran from my wrist to the crease inside my elbow. Dazed and disoriented, I looked up from the bright red blood pulsing out of my arminto the fevered eyes of the six suddenly ravenous vampires. How to cite The Twilight Saga 2: New Moon Chapter 1 PARTY, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

A Rose For Emily Symbolism Essay Example For Students

A Rose For Emily Symbolism Essay A Rose for Emily takes place after the Civil War and into the 1900s in the town of Jefferson, Mississippia town very similar to the one in which William Faulkner spent most of his life. It is a story of the conflict between the old and the new South, the past and the presentwith Emily and the things around her steadfastly representing the dying old traditions and the present expressed mostly through the words of the narrator but also through Homer Barron and the new board of aldermen. The issue of racism also runs throughout the story. In part I, Faulkner refers to Emily as a fallen monument, a monument to the southern gentility that existed before the Civil War. Her house is described as having once been whitethe color of youth, innocence and purity, and also of the white societybut decayed now and smelling of dust and disuse.It stands between the cotton wagons (the past) and the gasoline pumps (the present)an eyesore among eyesores.Emily comes from an upper class family and grew up privileged and protected by her father. We will write a custom essay on A Rose For Emily Symbolism specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now An agreement between her father and Colonel Sartorisa character we assume was a veteran of the Civil War and who also represented the old South with his edict that no Negro woman should appear on the streets without an apronexempted her from paying taxes. The authorities decide to pay Emily a visit to try to collect the taxes due the town. When we are introduced to Emily, she is described as being in blackthe color of deathand her eyes are lifelesstwo small pieces!of coal.The description of Emily is not unlike that of her house, and I thought of a corpse when reading that she looked bloated, like a body long submerged in motionless water, and of that pallid hue. the dying old traditions. The tarnished gold head on her black cane is the one reminder of her affluent, upper class position of years ago. And the invisible watch hanging from her neck but hidden under her belt is symbolic of her living in the pasttime at a standstill in the Grierson house. When asked if she got the tax notice from the sheriff, Emily claims she has no taxes to pay and refers them to Colonel Sartoris who has been dead for ten yearsanother indication of Emilys living in the past. Referring to the sheriff, she says, Perhaps he considers himself the sheriffI have no taxes in Jefferson. This implies that Emily still considers herself superior to the rest of the town.Emily has difficulty accepting the death of her father, and she hangs onto him and the past for three days after he dies until she finally allows the body to be taken away for burial. Her father had overprotected her throughout her life, chasing suitors away because they werent good enough for her. And when her sweetheart deserts her, she becomes a virtual recluse. The only sign of life is the young Negro servant who gardens and cooks for her. In fact, it is apparent that Emily would have died years earlier if he had not taken care of her. To me, Faulkner is suggesting that the South will die, or certainly not progress, unless its culture changes and it accepts the Negro as a vital part of society. I wonder if the smell of Homers rotting corpse represents racial prejudice: the 80 year old mayor refuses to directly confront Emily about the odorjust as he would not deal with the immorality of racial repressionand after several complaints, four aldermen take it up!on themselves to do something about it. Three of them are graybeards representing the old South; one of them is a younger man, a member of the rising generation. I think the three older men helped to find the source of the stench, but they didnt really do anything to stop itI believe it is the young alderman who spreads the lime in a sowing motion in an effort to get rid of the smellthe lime perhaps representing tolerance. After her father dies, Emily disappears within the house for some time; but when a construction company comes into Jefferson to pave the

Saturday, March 28, 2020

Australia And Apec Essays - International Trade,

Australia And Apec Economics assignment: APEC When the ?Asian-Pacific Economic Cooperation? (APEC) was established in 1989 in response to the growing interdependence among Asia-Pacific economies, its goal was to advance Asia-Pacific economic dynamism and sense of community. When the cooperation was established, there were 12 founding member economies, namely Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Indonesia, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, Republic of the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and the United States. Since then there has been more countries/economies joining APEC. APEC has come a long way since 1989. It has built steadily on the efforts of the past and looks forward to further positive progress. The initial years of APEC were focused largely on exchange of views and project based initiatives. As needs of the member economies has evolved into a forum of higher purpose: to build the Asia-Pacific community through achieving economic growth and development through trade and economic cooperation. In the Osaka meeting in 1994, APEC leaders adopted the Osaka Action Agenda, which firmly established three pillars of APEC activities: Trade and investment liberalization, business facilitation and economic-technical cooperation. Its main objective is to develop a region-wide, free trade and investment regime by the year 2000. APEC operates by consensus. In 1991, members committed themselves to conducting their activities and work programs on the basis of open dialogue with equal respect for the views of all participants. The APEC chair, which rotates annually among members, is responsible for hosting the annual ministerial meeting of foreign and economic ministers. At the 1989 Canberra Ministerial Meeting, it was agreed that it would be appropriate that every alternative ministerial meeting be held in an ASEAN economy/country. Senior Official Meeting (SOM) are held regularly prior to every ministerial meeting. APEC senior officials make recommendations to the ministers and carry out their decisions. They oversee and coordinate, with approval from Ministers, the budgets and work programs of the APEC for a. Mr. Fischer, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Trade, said Australia's IAP (Individual Action Plan) would address the main trade liberalization issues of tariffs, non- tariffs, investment and services, although the 1996 IAP would not pre-judge the outcomes of the existing and previously announced reviews into the passenger motor vehicle, textile clothing and footwear and sugar sectors. Other elements of the IAP deal wit the important trade facilitation issues such as standards and customs procedures, intellectual property rights, competition policy, and mobility of business people and deregulation. ?Australia's plan is fully consistent with the general principals of the Osaka Action Agenda agreed by that leaders in November 1995, including comprehensives,? Mr. Fischer said. ?Australia's done a great deal to liberalize our market consistent with APEC goals, and we expect others to match our record. The government will pursue vigorously Australian trade and investment priorities within APEC,? Mr. Fischer stated. Australia's IAP address the objectives and guidelines of the Osaka Action Plan in a comprehensive manner: Tariffs Australia's IAP includes reduction in applied tariffs to the year 2000. Table: Tariff Reductions in the APEC region Simple Average Applied Tariff 1988 1993 1997 Australia * 15.6 7.0 5.3 Brunei 3.9 3.9 2.0 Canada (*) 3.7 2.4 1.3^ Chile 19.9 11 11 China 39.5 37.5 17 Hong Kong 0 0 0 Indonesia 18.1 17 11.7 Japan * 4.3 3.4 4.6 Korea 19.2 11.6 7.9^ Malaysia 13.6 12.8 7.8^ Mexico * 10.5 12.6 9.8^ New Zealand 14.9 8.5 5.2 PNG NA NA 23^ Philippines 27.9 23.5 12.1 Singapore 0.3 0.4 0 Chinese Taipei 12.6 8.9 8.6 Thailand 31.2 37.8 17 United States (*) 4.2 4.2 3.4^ Note: Does not include calculation of non-ad valorum tariffs Indicates trade-weighted advantage ^1996 data Source: http://www.aph.gov.au/library/pubs/cib/1998-99/c99cib05.htm Australia's applied simple tariff has fallen from 15.6% in 1998 to 6.1% in 1996 and will reduce further to 4.5% by the year 2000. Australia is also hoping to have tariffs reduced to zero in numerous sectors of our economy by the year 2000. Sectors Selected for Early Voluntary Sectoral Liberalism Sector EVSL Proposal Toys Progressive reduction to zero of tariffs on toys, preferably by 2000. Elimination of unjustified non-tariff barriers. Economic and technical cooperation Gems and jewelry Elimination of trade-restrictive measures on these products (phased out by 2005), which include pearls, diamonds, silver, gold, platinum, jewelry, goldsmiths' and silversmiths' wares. Environmental Goods and Services Elimination of tariffs by 2003 on environmental goods and liberalization of environmental services. Work on non-tariffs barriers. Economic and technical cooperation. Food Further impetus to trade

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Bleeding Kansas, Book Review Essays

Bleeding Kansas, Book Review Essays Bleeding Kansas, Book Review Essays Civil War History 26 November, 2013 Bleeding Kansas: Contested Liberty in the Civil War Era (Nicole Etcheson) Bleeding Kansas is the term referring to the conflict on the Kansas-Missouri border as to whether the territory of Kansas was to be permitted as a proslavery state or an abolitionist state before and during the Civil War. This conflict was waged on the border-towns of both states and atrocities were committed by both parties. Missouri was to be a slave state based on the Missouri Compromise, which was formed to help alleviate the pressures of the rising slave question in the United States. When the Kansas-Nebraska Act was put into place, it gave the settlers of these two territories popular sovereignty as to whether they would become abolitionist or proslavery states. Bloodshed ensued when agreements could not be made on the position of the territory of Kansas in this debate. The Missouri Compromise was put into action to equal the number of slave and free states in the United States. From this compromise: Maine would become a free state, Missouri would become a slave state, and the Great Plains' territories would become free states (with the exception of the Arkansas Territory, which would become proslavery). It is said that the compromise withheld the United States from plunging into Civil War in 1820, until it was repealed with the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 gave the people of these two territories the right to decide the position of the states when they would be admitted into the United States. The passage of this act formed the Republican party who opposed the idea that the wealthy land/slave owners of the south could simply purchase land and vote accordingly to hold these â€Å"properties.† Abolitionists from the east poured into the state to quickly claim land, while Missourians who wanted the state to be proslavery did the same. Both factions claimed land before they even saw the soil, pointing out claims on a map. When they arrived, however, some claims were already made by the other party. The purpose of these claims were to gain a political advantage over the other to change the position of the state towards slavery via votes. Many Missourians laid four logs as a foundation of a house and returned to Missouri until after the Spring harvest, then would return to build. The population of the territory before the repeal of the Missouri Compromise was less than 800 people. Nine months after the Kansas-Nebraska Act came about, the population rose to over 8,000, many settling on the Kansas-Missouri border. The first governor of the Kansas territory was a Democrat named Andrew H. Reeder, appointed by President Andrew Pierce. He claimed that, in order to vote on the matter, you must live, and continue to live in Kansas even after the vote was decided. Reeder supported an election to elect someone to be represented in Congress, and J. W. Whitfield won by a landslide. The vote is said to have been biased because of the Missourian presence at ballot boxes and the deterring of abolitionists from voting by force. Abolitionists were outraged and feared rule by the Missourian proslavery â€Å"ruffians.† The next governor of the territory was Wilson Shannon, a former governor of Ohio. When Missourians came across the border to siege Lawrence (abolitionist town), Shannon gave the people of the area the right raise a militia to thwart off the attack. With aid from the winter cold they chased the Missourians out of Lawrence. The aggression/retreat of the Missourians at Lawrence was named, â€Å"the Wakarusa War.† It proved to the abolitionists of the state that they did not have to be repressed by the people of another state and could make the state a free state. Thomas Barber was credited as a martyr for the abolitionist cause, and made the

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Tobacco Industry Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Tobacco Industry - Case Study Example Tobacco is one of the farming manufactured goods that are acknowledged as being addictive drug, developed from the new leaves of the vegetation.This has resulted in the formation of the British American Tobacco company as the industry for the produce to the people for their consumption in different forms. They have some of their stakeholders of which they have enabled the succession of the company in the past years. These stakeholder includes; the Russian government, the Rumania government, the European government, the African nations governments and the Americans government.Basing on this, the stakeholders have their own harms and the benefits that they do face today in the market. Focusing on the Russian and Rumania governments, they have continued to benefit in the market in that, their sales have continuingly increased in that in the year 2008, may, their sale growth rose upward by around 23% to around 30% of which showed a positive trend in the market of the tobacco in the BAT.R egarded the Americans market, the market have continuingly facing the harmful nature of the product. With this, the stakeholder noted the increase in the nicotine level in the product so as to increase the addictive quality of the product, this has led to the benefits of the market in that the increase in the addictive nature of the consumers have led to the increase of the sales in the market. With the Europeans as one of the stakeholders, they have experienced lose in regard to their contribution to the tobacco market. In this country, the consumer mostly involves the teenage girls of whom they have been addicted to the level that they can not perform correctly in the society. Basing on the African countries as the last stakeholders of the company, they have ended up involving themselves in the business of transporting the goods across the boundaries without paying the taxes. This has resulted in the high level of the consumption of the product among the uneducated people in the c ountries. 1.2 Banning of the Tobacco Industry. As much the industry has been one of the sectors that bring in high percentage of tax in the world as a whole, I do support the banning of the tobacco industry. This is because; the product has led to high negative effects to the consumer and even to the non users of the product. Whenever one associates anything with tobacco in the today world, they have tended to relate it to the lung cancer (Hoek 2000, pg 220). This is one of the diseases that have led to the decrease in the world population and thus leading to the low productivity of the nations in the world. other than the disease affecting the consumer only, it has that extent to the non smokers too as they receive the product impassively from the environment, and with this, I do support for the banning of the industry to reduce the death of the people in the world thus increase in the production rate. Due to the increase of the untaxed product being passed across the boundaries, the industry has in the long run resulted in being unproductive as no income tax is gained from it. With this, it has led to majority of the people involving themselves in the unlawful business of transporting the untaxed goods (Hoek 2000, pg 221). Thus, the industry will be best being banned to allow for the fairness in the country. This it will also utilize the utilitarianism theory of which states that, one has to do what will take full advantage of comprehensive happiness and gratify the significance of the people around him or her. With this, the society will be up to the idea of trying to ensure that the members of the society gets the clear and good air that they do need. 1.3 Duties & Responsibilities of the Tobacco Companies The tobacco companies were to be responsible to the application of the rules and the regulation on the usage of the product and the ways in which the consumer has to ensure that they do not affect the rest of the population in the environment. With this, the company has used